||Detoxification General Outline
Liver Phase I: functionalization (oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis reactions, increasing solubility of the substrate)
- P450 Enzymes use oxygen to process many endogenous and exogenous substances, adding a reactive group, such as hydroxyl radical, to the molecule being processed in order to enable Phase II to deal with it.
- Pathological detoxifiers / Liver backlog - when Phase II can't keep up with Phase I. Intermediates formed may be more toxic than the original substance acted on by Phase I.
Liver Phase II Conjugation (biotransformation of a lipophilic compound, by combining it with another substance, to a water-soluble compound able to be excreted)
- Processes (Cofactors must be replenished through dietary sources)
- Acylation (peptide conjugation)
The amino acids glycine, taurine, glutamine, arginine, and ornithine combine with toxins to neutralize and eliminate them.
- Glutathione conjugation (mercapturic acid synthesis)
- Multi-Functional Induction: substances inducing multiple Phase II processes (Mono-functional induction is listed with the process it induces)
- rosemary (provokes a reaction)
- soy (provokes a reaction)
- cabbage (can't eat much
- brussels sprouts (can't eat much)
- Garlic oil (provokes a reaction)
- acetaminophen (provokes a reaction) See Acetaminophen Poisoning.
Methylation - takes place in every cell in the body
- Sulfation and glucuronidation go on here too. Some xenoestrogens inhibit these processes.
- Useful enzymes at tip of villi
- "Phase III" anti-porter activity: an energy-dependent efflux pump, which pumps xenobiotics out of a cell, thereby decreasing the intracellular concentration of xenobiotics. See reference 15 at Liska
- Counterproductive process: enterohepatic recirculation. Beta-glucoronidase bacteria remove conjugation moiety glocuronosyl side chain converting estrogens back to their original form and allowing them to reenter circulation.
General Detox Info:
- Herbs (These are mostly specific for the liver)
- Silymarin - has been helping me
- Artichoke (related to Silymarin) stimultes bile
- Dandelion (I believe I reacted to this when I tried it in '97.)
- NAC (N-Acetylcysteine) "not everybody tolerates NAC well." Steven Shackel
- "Scientists at the University of Minnesota have found that the two primary chemical components in lupulin [from hops] humulone and lupulune stimulate the production of liver enzymes that metabolize toxins." Bobbi A. McRaie, "Hops: Food, Shade, Flavoring and a Pillow for Your Head." The Herb Companion, April/May 1992, p. 62. (I have found similar statements around the Web but no documentation as yet.)
- Many of the liver functions are measured in the GSDL Detoxification Profile. See my results from that test on 28 November 2001.
- In addition, the Genovations DetoxiGenomic Profile identifies polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for some detox functions. I had this test performed 22 June 2006; see my results from the DetoxiGenomic Profile.
- [other one B. ordered?]
copyright © 2000 by Catherine Holmes Clark. Last updated 1 November 2005