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Inflammation

Neurological factors: only in very early phases of inflammatory reaction

Chemical factors:

  1. Factors contributing to increased vascular permeability in inflammatory edema
    1. From Cells
      • Arachidonic acid metabolites, derived from cell membrane phospholipids:
        • Various stimuli (mechanical, chemical, physical) induce phopsholipases (lysosomes) to release AA.
        • Result:
          • Prostaglandins
            • vasodilation
            • increased permeability.
          • Leukotrienes
            • increased permeability
            • chemotaxis (see below)
      • Platelet activating factor (PAF)
      • Vasoactive Amines — in humans, mainly histamine
      • Endothelins (peptides produced by endothelial cells) are strongly vasoconstrictive
    2. From Plasma:
      1. 3 distinct but interrelated systems:
        1. Complement
        2. Clotting
        3. Kinin
  2. Factors contributing to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of tissue injury (chemotaxis)
    1. C5a, a local hormone
    2. Bacterial and mitochondrial products
    3. Leukotrienes (from archidonic acid metabolism)
    4. Cytokines
    5. Histamine is chemotactic for eosinophils.
  3. Sialic acid (a simple sugar) shifts an IgG antibody species from a pro-inflammatory state to one that is anti-inflammatory. See Single Sugar Found Responsible For An Antibody's Ability To Treat Inflammation, from the Rockefeller Institute.

For More Information

[need to clean up the overlap between this page and the Histamine page.]

Last updated 21 August 2003